Neurological Alterations > Neurological Alterations
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NEUROLOGICAL ALTERATIONS OVERVIEW

The goal of this module is to give the students a basic understanding of the more commonly encountered neurological alterations such as meningitis, Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).

Learning Objectives

After successfully completing this module, you will be able to:

  • Discuss the differences in viral, bacterial and fungal meningitis
  • Describe the different signs and symptoms of meningitis
  • Discuss risk factors and modes of transmission
  • Define Guillain-Barré Syndrome and it’s causes
  • Describe the presenting symptoms and methods of diagnosing GBS in patients
  • Define what is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and presenting symptoms
  • Describe the methods of diagnosing ALS in patients
  • Discuss the complications and treatment modalities for meningitis, GBS, and ALS
  • Identify the multidisciplinary team approaches to caring for meningitis, GBS, and ALS patients

References

Meningitis:

  1. Donovan, C., Blewitt, J. (2009). An overview of meningitis and meningococcal septicemia.  Emergency Nurse, 17 (7), 32-39.
  2. Hickey, J.V. (2014). Clinical practice of neurological and neurosurgical nursing. (7th ed). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  3. Kim, K. S. (2010). Acute bacterial meningitis in infants and children. The Lancet, 10, 32-42.
  4. Knight, J. (2009). Every picture tells a story. Nursing Standard, 24 (1), 22.
  5. LeMone, P., & Burke, K. (2008). Medical-surgical nursing: Critical thinking in client care (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New-Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  6. Matthews, C., Miller, L., & Mott, M. (2007). Getting ahead of acute meningitis & encephalitis. Nursing, 37(11), 36-41.
  7. Meningitis Research Foundation of Canada. (2018). What is meningitis. Retrieved from   http://www.meningitis.ca/en/Home.aspx
  8. Urden, L.D., Stacy, K.M., & Lough, M.E. (2018). Critical Care Nursing Diagnosis and Management. (8th ed). Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby.

GBS:

  1. American Healthcare Consultants. (2005). Guillain-Barre syndrome following meningococcal vaccine. Infectious Disease Alert, 25, (2), p. 24.
  2. Atkinson, S.B., Lamb Carr, R., Maybee, P., & Haynes, D. (2006). The challenges of managing and treating Guillain-Barré syndrome during the acute phase. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing, 25(6), 256-263.
  3. Mayo Clinic. (2018). Tests and Diagnosis. Retrieved October 29, 2018 from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/guillain-barre-syndrome/DS00413/DSECTION=tests%2Dand%2Ddiagnosis
  4. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2018). Retrieved November 2, 2018 from: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/gbs/detail_gbs.htm#138173139
  5. Simmons, S. (2010). Guillain-Barre syndrome: a nursing nightmare that usually ends well. Nursing 2010. January 2010.
  6. Urden, L.D., Stacy, K.M., & Lough, M.E. (2018). Critical Care Nursing Diagnosis and Management. (8th ed). Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby.
  7. Van Doorn, P., Ruts, L., & Jacobs, B. (2008). Clinical features, pathogenesis, and treatment of Guillain-Barre syndrome.The Lancet Neurology.7 (10).
  8. Van Doorn, P. (2009). Review: What’s new in Guillain-Barre syndrome in 2007 – 2008? Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System.14: 72-74.
  9. Warms, C. (2010). Nursing Management: Peripheral Nerves and Spinal Cord Problems. In S.L. Lewis, M. MacLean-Heitkemper, S. Ruff-Dirksen, L. Bucher, P. Graber-O’Brien. Medical-Surgical Nursing in Canada Assessment and Management of Clinical Problems. Toronto, ON: Mosby.

ALS:

  1. ALS Society of Canada (2018). https://www.als.ca/ 
  2. Corcia, P. & Meininger, V. (2008). Management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Drugs 2008, 68(8), 1037-1048.
  3. Ferguson, T.A. & Elman, L.B. (2007). Clinical presentation and diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurorehabiltation, 22, 409-416.
  4. Hecht, M.J., Graesel, E., Tigges, S., Hillemacher, T., Winterholler, M., Hilz, M., Heuss, D. & Neundorfer, B. (2003). Burden of care in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Palliative Medicine, 17, 327-333.
  5. McCluskey, L. (2007). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Ethical issues from diagnosis to end of life. Neurorehabiliation, 22, 463-472
  6. Mitchell, J. D., & Borasio, G. D. (2007). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The Lancet, 369, 2031-2038.
  7. Nelson, N.D., Trail, M., Van, J.N., Appel, S.H. & Lai, E.C. (2003). Quality of life in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Perceptions, coping resources, and illness characteristics. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 6(3), 417-424.
  8. Ozuna, J.M. (2010). Nursing Management: Chronic Neurological Problems. In S.L. Lewis, M. MacLean-Heitkemper, S. Ruff-Dirksen, L. Bucher, P. Graber-O’Brien. Medical-Surgical Nursing in Canada Assessment and Management of Clinical Problems. Toronto, ON: Mosby.
  9. Ray, R. A., & Street, A. F. (2006). Caregiver bodywork: Family members’ experiences of caring for a person with motor neurone disease. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 56(1), 35-43. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.03977.x
  10. Valente, S.M. & Karp, J.R. (2007). Life with Lou Gehrig’s disease: Managing. The Nurse Practitioner, 32(12), 26-33.
 
 
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